1. The Final Countdown: tutor2u Support for Paper 3, Psychology Revision Webinars Are Now Available On-Demand. According to this theory, developed by sociologist George Homans, people weigh the potential benefits and risks of social relationships. Considered one of the justice theories, equity theory was first developed in the 1960s by J. Stacy Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, who asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs that they bring to a job and the outcomes that they receive from it against the p Men who have been pulled away from their family by their work sometimes try to even the scales with expensive holidays. According to the Equity Theory, a person who gets more benefits out of relationships than they put in will feel guilt and shame, and those who think they put a lot in but get very little back will be a… As a result, equity theory is no longer the dominant approach to understanding fairness in the workplace. Those who under-benefitted showed lowest levels of satisfaction. Relationships that lack equity (where someone is putting in more than they are getting out of it) are more likely to be associated with dissatisfaction. It suggests people are content in their relationship if the benefits are roughly equal to the costs. Spell. This paper describes a new construct, equity sensitivity, and proposes that reactions to equity/inequity are a function of an individual's preferences for different outcome/input ratios. In their study over 200 married couples completed questionnaires on relationship equity and satisfaction. Equity theory proposes the winning formula of fairness in relationships: one partner’s benefits minus their costs, should equal another partner’s benefits minus their costs. Equity theory is considered as one of the justice theories. They found that partners who perceived their relationships as fair and balanced, followed by spouses who over-benefitted from the relationships, experienced the most satisfaction. Hatfield, E., Walster, G. W., & Berscheid, E. (1978). fbruce_ Key Concepts: Terms in this set (14) What is equity theory? Boston House, -1: My partner is getting a slightly better deal. Equity doesn’t mean equality, though. PLAY. However, Mills & Clarke (1982) argue that it is not possible to assess equity in terms of loving relationships, as a lot of the input is emotional and unquantifiable. Winner take all (dog-eat-dog capitalism). All students preparing for mock exams, other assessments and the summer exams for AQA A-Level Psychology. Love, Loss, and the Space Between - An Interview with Dr David Sbarra, Biopsychology: Evaluating Localisation of Function, Issues & Debates: Evaluating Socially Sensitive Research, Issues & Debates: Evaluating the Nomothetic Approach, Issues & Debates: The Influence of Nurture, Issues & Debates: Evaluating the Holism and Reductionism Debate, Attachment: Knowledge Book for AQA A-Level Psychology, Psychopathology: Exam Buster Revision Guide for AQA A Level Psychology, Advertise your teaching jobs with tutor2u. It is an economic theory that explains the importance of the balance of rewards (max.) Even though Adams’ theory is over 50 ye… (1998) suggest that women are more focused on relationships, and so are more sensitive to injustices. The longer this feeling of unfairness (lack of equity) goes on, the more likely a  couple is to break up. Learn. As with many other explanations of romantic relationships, there may be a cause and effect problem with Equity Theory. Reach the audience you really want to apply for your teaching vacancy by posting directly to our website and related social media audiences. For example, it is perfectly normal for many people to put in more than they receive at the beginning of a relationship, but if it carries on like that for too long, it will lead to dissatisfaction. Fairness is achieved when people feel they get approximately what they deserve from relationships. EQUITY THEORY: "The equity theory deals with how we see the input into a activity compared to the outcome of the activity." This does not work well as they are trying to trade (short-term value) money for (long-term value) emotion. This theory postulates that a major share of individual behaviour is based on the perceived situation rather than on … AQA Psychology A Level - Equity theory. Equity theory is a theory of romantic relationships proposed by Hatfield et al., which views it as an extension of social exchange theory. See external inequity - internal inequity - overpayment inequity - underpayment inequity. Other people, entitleds, believe they deserve to over-benefit from relationships and don’t feel too guilty about this. Equity motive tends to be one of the important motives with the employees. 1-42). Equity Often discussed in relationships, this is a situation in which people receive in proportion to what they give to the relationship. Employees are able to adjust for purchasing po… -2: My partner is getting a somewhat better deal. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 267-299, Academic Press, New York. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. However, Van Yperen and Buunk (1990) studied married couples and found that dissatisfaction in inequitable relationships increased with time, not the other way around. John S. Adams developed the idea of equity theory in 1963. This disenchantment led industrial and organizational psychologists to follow the lead of social psychologists by broadening their efforts to understand fairness in organizations by focusing on procedural justice. In this sense, equity ratios (which can be perceived as ratios of outcomes to inputs or vice versa) should be equal. 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For example, Stafford and Canary (2006) have discovered that partners who perceived their relationships as fair and balanced experienced most satisfaction, thus supporting Equity Theory’s suggestion that perceived fairness is necessary for happy relationships. The importance of equity in relationships is supported by research findings. The theory is based on the idea that people are motivated by the ratio of … Equity Theory posits that if the person perceives that there is inequality, where either their output/input ratio is less than or greater than what they perceive a… Log in. Top Ten Psychology Movies to Get You to The End of Term! Briefly, they subscribe to the norm of equity and feel distress when either overrewarded or underrewarded. According to equity theory, people feel most comfortable when they are getting exactly what they deserve from their relationships—no more and certainly no less. Equity is a sense of fairness in the exchange of goods, services, time, and effort. Equity theory proposes that individuals in social exchange relationships compare each other the ratios of their inputs into the exchange to their outcomes from the exchange. The dictionary meaning of the word equity is the quality of being fair and impartial. Furthermore, there are also some important individual differences in perception of equity. Another study, conducted by Stafford and Canary (2006), also found similar trends. Equity theory consists of four propositions: Proposition I. However, this may then result in an alpha bias and exaggerate differences between males and females that do not actually exist. Equity theory attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships. In simple terms, equity theory states that if an individual identifies an inequity between themselves and a peer, they will adjust the work they do to make the situation fair in their eyes. The equity theory of relationships is based on a theory developed by workplace and behavioral psychologist John Stacey Adams. Equity theory is a study of human perception in terms of proportionate equivalence of the ratio of one person's inputs to the results … Lastly compared to the other theories, the equity theory adopts a realistic approach to motivation. LS23 6AD, Tel: +44 0844 800 0085 Consequently, it may be better to study romantic relationships using an idiographic approach which focuses on the qualitative experiences of individuals, rather than employing a nomothetic approach to generate universal laws for human relationships. Bad News Guys – Your Tattoo Doesn’t Impress the Ladies. From: Ethical and Social Marketing in … Equity is measured by comparing the ratio of contributions and benefits for each person. As per the equity theory, human beings derive motivation and satisfaction in a job by comparing their inputs and outputs with other people in either the same or some other firm. Perception is a relative term and differs from person to person. (2006) show that the concept of equity is more important in Western cultures than non-Western cultures. Gravity. It was first developed in 1963 by John Stacey Adams, a workplace and behavioral psychologist, who asserted that employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs […] 214 High Street, Does Travelling Make You More Likely to Cheat? Output is related to the input into the activity. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Thus, two employees of equal experience and qualification performing the same work for the same pay may have quite different perceptions of the fairness of the deal. 9, pp. (1984) used self-report scales to measure equity and satisfaction in recently married couples. In its basic form, the equity theory of motivation implies that each individual is motivated by the concept of “fairness.” If there are unequal levels of input or output, either internally or within an observed group, then adjustments are made to create more fairness … Joseph is a Subject Advisor for Psychology at tutor2u. There are people who are less sensitive to inequity and are prepared to give more in the relationships (benevolents, according to Hussman et al., 1987). These results highlight a culture bias in this area of research and suggest that Equity Theory does not explain the development of romantic relationships in all cultures. New York: Academic Press. Like any theory of human psychology, the equity theory makes a number of assumptions about how people think and behave. Equity theory focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to both relational partners. In the 1980s, organizational scholars recognized that equity theory’s conceptualization of fairness in organizations was highly limiting because it focused only on the distribution of outcomes. Finally, a partner’s way of dealing with inequity also changes with time. It was published in the journal, Experimental Social Psychology, 1965, New York titles ‘Inequality in Social Exchange’. Equity theory proposes the winning formula of fairness in relationships: one partner’s benefits minus their costs, should equal another partner’s benefits minus their costs. Description: Equity theory is used in parlance of human resource management. 1. In other words, it seems that perceived fairness is either present or not in relationships  from the start, and does not develop with time, contrary  to the prediction of Equity Theory. Equity theory is a concept in psychology that asserts humans will be more motivated if what they receive as compensation is equal to the efforts they give out. Equity theory proposes that individuals who perceive themselves as either underrewarded or overrewarded will experience distress, and that this distress leads to efforts to restore equity. -3: My partner is getting a much better deal than I am. Flashcards. IB Psychology: Teaching the Human Relationships option? Equity theory has some implications for managers: 1. Adams, John S. (1963). Output can be things like salary, recognition, and responsibility. There are also important cultural differences not accounted for by the Equity theory. Equity theory is a concept in Industrial/Organizational Psychology that focuses on an individual’s perceptions of how equitably they are being treated in their work organization. Input includes hard work, skills, and enthusiasm. These results indicate clear gender differences between males and females and highlight the importance of conducting research into males and females separately, to avoid gender bias. 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