ADHDAlien r/ ADHDAlien. How to Study When You Have ADHD: 5 ADHD Studying Tips, HealthyPlace. here. I study with the OU too. General strategies and specific tips show you how to do just that. We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us. Hey I’m Pina! top. Enhance your ADHD child's study space, like this girl doing her homework. The most helpful things I have found are 1) use the 20/80 rule. We somehow manage to maintain our sanity through it all. 2,544 Likes, 47 Comments - Pina (@adhd_alien) on Instagram: “How to help an ADHD student Heyo! This could be a physical calendar on the wall in your room, a day planner that you carry in your school bag, or a calendar you keep on your phone. Most importantly, they will also help boost self esteem and confidence. The research, funded by the Wellcome Trust, found that when the incentive was low, the children with ADHD failed to “switch off” brain regions … diversity works a study of employees with adhd aspergers syndrome and ptsd seattle wa createspace independent publishing platform 2012 google scholar hendrickx s the adolescent and adult neuro diversity handbook asperger syndrome adhd dyslexia dyspraxia and related conditions london uk jessica kingsley publishers 2009 google scholar nicolaidis c what can neuro diversity works a study of employees with … Learn more about how ADHD can affect a college … See more ideas about adhd, adhd problems, adhd brain. A recent study shows that ADHD meds don't boost grades or test scores. Retrieved General strategies and specific tips show you how to do just that. During the study, participants were also asked to create product labels and … One problem I found when I started taking meds, was that I needed to learn an entire new way to study. helping ADHD kids study: Get 10 tips for parents to use at home with their ADHD child. ADHD & My Master's Degree Study Secrets — Smart Girls with ADHD. I noticed a lot of people had trouble reading this because of the amount of text / size so I cut it down for y’all! If this is you, find a restaurant, café, or coffee shop that has Wifi and study there. The present study explored the constraining effects of knowledge in adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), a disorder characterized by impaired attention and inhibitory control (Barkley, R. A., 1997). How I cope with rejection (or strong emotions in general) • Posted by 1 month ago. How to help an ADHD student Heyo! And a recent study from Taiwan, where ADHD … Studying can be daunting and stressful for any college student, but for students with ADHD earning an A in class or on an exam can be especially challenging, even when putting in the same amount of study time as students without ADHD. To study the effect of incentives, the reward for avoiding catching the black alien was then increased to five points, with a five-point penalty incurred for catching the wrong alien. Study Strategies for ADHD & ADD 1. There are some actions you can take to make your studying experience more positive and successful. But in this study, participants with ADHD created “alien fruits” that differed more from typical Earth fruit and were more original, compared to non-ADHD participants. 1,051 talking about this. Reading when you've #ADHD can be tough at times | Smart Girls with ADHD . … Do you need utter silence? Whether it's your girlfriend or your wife, this top ten…, Emotional abuse can happen to anyone at any time in their lives. ADHD tips for parents. There are also specific tips for how to study if you have ADHD. For decades, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been one of the most debated disorders, ... — Pina ADHD Alien Comic (@ADHD_Alien) June 30, 2019. Only, make sure you are respectful and buy something. Tailor these to suit your unique personality. Using a 'Whac-a-Mole'-style game, researchers from the Motivation, Inhibition and Development in ADHD Study (MIDAS) group at the University of Nottingham found evidence that children with ADHD require much greater incentives – or their usual stimulant medication – to focus on a task. Video-game therapy may help treat ADHD, study finds About 4.4% of people in the U.S. have been diagnosed with ADHD. Aliens might wear plugs when reading or solving tasks OAliens have weak internal self talk That's the focused voice in your head that observes "If I change this, then this happens. If you have to discuss the student’s behavior, do so in private. Site last updated December 10, 2020, ADHD Adults: Improving Time Management Skills, how to study for an exam when you have ADHD, How to Deal with ADHD Meltdowns in Adults, ADHD and Clutter: 5 Tips for Getting Organized, ADHD and How to Get a Better Night’s Sleep, Use These Positive Affirmations for Anxiety Relief, Rape Victim Stories: Real Stories of Being Raped, Depression Quotes & Sayings That Capture Life with Depression, Positive Inspirational Quotes for People with Depression, Quotes on Mental Health and Mental Illness, Emotional Abuse: Definitions, Signs, Symptoms, Examples, HONcode standard for Adhd. Several years later, our daughter was diagnosed. November 23, 2020. The news is based on a study in which children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed through a computer based task that College students with disabilities have rights that allow for specific accommodations to help them succeed in school. CHICAGO, Oct. 9 (Xinhua) -- A University of Michigan (UM) study found that adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) feel empowered doing creative tasks that could help them on the job. Using a 'Whac-a-Mole' style game, researchers from the Motivation, Inhibition and Development in ADHD Study (MIDAS) group found evidence that children with ADHD require either much greater incentives — or their usual stimulant medication — to focus on a task. Some students work well standing up, completing homework on the kitchen counter. Here, strategies for success. Children with ADD and ADHD can be easily distracted by their surroundings. Aliens are defeated. If you live with ADHD and depression, her comic is a must-see. The key is to find the correct balance. (ADD / ADHD) - Schools Love'm - … Dec 23, 2019 - Making comics about my experience with ADHD - Patreon http://patreon.com/adhd_alien/ Using a statistical technique called meta-analysis, the researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) found that medication treatment for children with ADHD resulted in an almost … An analysis of all available studies that examine the possible impact of stimulant treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on future substance abuse supports the safety of stimulant treatment. Studying with an ADHD Alien Externalize Prevent frustration Create interest Ensure a quiet workplace. To head off behavior that takes time from other students, work out a couple of warning signals with the student who has ADHD. Learning how to get organized, study hard, and find balance is as essential as reading Shakespeare for college students with ADHD. There are even a few universities dedicated specifically to students with ADHD. Researchers at the University of Michigan studied a group of college students with and without ADHD who were compared on lab tasks of creativity. Depression can make life so gray that you aren’t sure where the sunshine is hiding or if it will return.…, These quotes on mental health, quotes on mental illness are insightful and inspirational. Why It's Tough to Keep Friends When You Have ADHD. Their brain is very bad at rewarding for boring tasks So if you praise them you are not creating a surplus you are making up for whats missing staying on task C Fidgeting does NOT distract the Alien Opposite It helps focus Externalize importance of tasks Break down what is most important and should be done first Put the work into smaller chunks Rewards can be Stickers praise talking about their special interest whatever works Stimming includes Drawing Tangles playing with jewelry or smooth pleasant to touch objects Externalize the inner clock Aliens have a weak concept of time and only see the now If possible let them get up and move ? General ADHD Studying Strategies. Research shows that the number-one way to study is to make a practice test. Create a homework-only space. (Procrastination can also be unproductive things - Executive Dysfunction can be part of the other struggles) #adhs #tdah #neurodiversity #comic” ADHD Alien. In a classroom, this means that little problems can mean temper tantrums, yelling, crying, and “shutting down.” But it also means that children with ADHD are hungry for approval and love. At the six-month mark, the difference between the treatment group and the placebo group on the primary outcome, the Endicott Work Productivity Scale, was a paltry six-tenths of a point—on a scale of zero to one hundred. Find a comfortable place where your child can work with few distractions. Pina ADHD Alien Comic on Twitter “There is a difference between being lazy and not being able to do something and everyone needs to know it. Join. They’re tried and true techniques that have helped students with ADHD be successful. Jun 23, 2020 - Making comics about my experience with ADHD - Patreon http://patreon.com/adhd_alien/ If you or your ADHD studen is heading off to college this year, this post will help ADHD Students Succeed in College. Lead author Juan Carlos Ispisua previously worked on pig and human embryos. Students who had ADHD created alien fruits that were more unique. I'm a licensed therapist with ADHD, and I (of course) specialize in treating adults with ADHD. In this study, participants with ADHD created "alien fruits" that differed more from typical Earth fruit, and were more original, compared to non-ADHD participants. And try to ignore mildly inappropriate behavior if it’s unintentional and isn’t distracting other students or disrupting the lesson. adhd_alien. That's why deadlines that are months away invite last minute work special hyperfocusing mean on a Break down deadlines into smaller ones that are just a few days away Understand they might not lack knowledge their memory might just be inaccessible at times Learn to see the difference ADHD-ALIENcom ADHD-ALIENcom How you can help an ADHD student Meme. card. Learn how you can help improve your child’s academic skills with these homework and study tips for kids with ADHD/ADD. Support and engage with artists and creators as they live out their passions! Put your child's digital obsession to good use by downloading these 7 educational apps designed to build solid social skills. Aliens might wear plugs when reading or solving tasks OAliens have weak internal self talk That's the focused voice in your head that observes "If I change this, then this happens. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts. The first test involved the invention and drawing of alien fruits without copying anything from earth. found ON 2019-07-13 17:37:42 BY awwmemes.com, Studying with an ADHD Alien Externalize Prevent frustration Create interest Ensure a quiet workplace Aliens might wear plugs when reading or solving tasks OAliens have weak internal self talk That's the focused voice in your head that observes If I change this then this happens Interest can make the difference between an A student and a failed class headphones or ear Aliens can't choose what they want to be interested in by force and uninteresting things It feels as if the brain revolts Listening to more than one person at a time can be hard for some Aliens In this case partner work instead of group work Externalize the self talk Let them say their observations out loud or have them explain it to you are hard to focus on careless mistakes like forgetting to put their name on the paper NOT or not taking it serious enough sign of disinterest are Let them find their own Different Brain means different approach give concrete tasks and let them know the purpose of a task approaches Gamify contests challenges let them beat their much as possible Make tasks as Aliens might get stuck in other places other students Encourage asking questions as Externalize motivation Be their body double Sit in the same room with them as Own scores they study This helps Externalize Rewards! ADHD Alien illustrator Pina spoke to The Mighty about her experience with confusing her untreated ADHD with depression. ADHD can make school and studying frustrating, especially if you don’t know how to study when you have ADHD. Rape stories…, Depression quotes and sayings about depression can provide insight into what it's like living with depression as well as inspiration and a feeling of "someone gets it…, Positive inspirational quotes are good for people with depression to have on-hand. ADHD medications are not a “smart” drug people take to “cheat.” ADHD medicine is central to the many stigmas and myths around the disorder. I was diagnosed with ADHD in 2006. hot. I'm on year 4 of 6 of a law degree and was diagnosed with ADHD-PI a couple of essays into year 1. Learn Right Now! (2017, October 13). This can be a hand signal, an unobtrusive shoulder squeeze, or a sticky note on the student’s desk. Studying with an ADHD Alien Externalize Prevent frustration Create interest Ensure a quiet workplace. In terms of medication, if it doesn't feel right, go back to … Also the frustration from sitting properly might be projected onto learning Incorporate their special interest multiply dinosaurs let them imagine their favorite character into history books - whatever works If you hear people talk about ADHD being a superpower they most likely interest Use it! I blame it on the ADHD. Downloads That Build Social Skills . If you’re continually reminding your child to sit still, try a different approach. Record all important dates in the calendar so you can stay organized and on … Making comics about my life with ADHD My wife may see it differently — probably more like an alien apocalypse. You make them sound like aliens that are difficult to deal with but can be fun, and you put their relationship problems solely on their shoulders – on the shoulders of so many people without even knowing them! A 2012 study, again far and away the largest and longest of its kind, looked at 410 adults diagnosed with ADHD who were randomized to either the ADHD drug Strattera or placebo. The study only included those with a diagnosis of ADHD-combined (a particular subtype of the condition) who had an established response to methylphenidate (Ritalin). Nov 27, 2020 - Explore Xoe Leann's board "Do I have ADHD" on Pinterest. Studying has always been a challenge; even when i was a kid. The beautiful images for these mental health quotes provide an emotional backdrop…, Every woman on earth has fantasized about some explicit sexual fantasy that she may or may not have been too ashamed to talk about. new. This varies from one university to the next. Intense, consistent brain training at #LearningRx has proven to reduce medications in children and adults with #ADD and #ADHD. Pina Varnel: The artist behind “ADHD Alien,” a widely popular comic that distills common ADHD struggles in a way that will make you feel so seen and so much less alone. 15,710 talking about this. Patreon is empowering a new generation of creators. MGH study supports protective effect of stimulant treatment for ADHD Meta-analysis shows medication treatment decreases risk of future substance abuse An analysis of all available studies that examine the possible impact of stimulant treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on future substance abuse supports the safety of stimulant treatment. (2018) There are two sides to the picture above. They are often seen as noisy, annoying, impetuous creatures, somehow alien to ourselves and our own experience, despite the fact that we all indisputably were once kids ourselves. When the incentive was low, the children with ADHD failed to ‘switch off’ brain regions involved … Crossposted by 1 month ago. Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD . Hence, Po-Yu Huang and colleagues from the Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan conducted this nationwide, population-based study with the sole aim to examine the risk of developing ADHD among asthma patients treated with montelukast in the 0- to the 12-year-old … Research indicates that when it comes to ADHD, you don’t necessarily have to study longer, you just need to study differently (Dolin, n.d.). Log in sign up. Obviously, students with ADHD will require extra support in learning these skills. Start by putting all important due dates and deadlines in a calendar. ADHD has nothing to do with intelligence, but sometimes people don’t do as well as they want to in school. Humanity is saved. card classic compact. The imagination task allowed a person to invent a new example of … The two of us have enough energy to turn our house into an amusement park! Non-ADHD participants typically modeled their creations after specific common fruits, such as an apple or … But in this study, participants with ADHD created “alien fruits” that differed more from typical Earth fruit and were more original, compared to non-ADHD participants. "I, myself, do struggle with a child with ADHD that needs more, and at home, it's impossible to do that daily," she explained. Research indicates that when it comes to ADHD, you don’t necessarily have to study longer, you just need to study differently (Dolin, n.d.). In this study, participants with ADHD created "alien fruits" that differed more from typical Earth fruit, and were more original, compared to non-ADHD participants. rising. In any case, a call to health services or the disabilities … Remember, these changes won’t happen overnight. In a study published today in the journal 'Biological Psychiatry', researchers from the University of Nottingham show that medication has the most significant effect on brain function in children with ADHD, but this effect can be boosted by complementary use of rewards and incentives, which appear to mimic the effects of medication on brain systems. 2,544 likes. Q: What resources are available to students with ADHD? My wife may see it differently — probably more like an alien apocalypse. To study the effect of incentives, the reward for avoiding catching the black alien was then increased to five points, with a five-point penalty incurred for catching the wrong alien. By studying the brain scans, the researchers were able to show that typically developing children switched off their DMN network whenever they saw an item requiring their attention. Starting something is always the hardest part anyway! Visit to learn more. UM researchers studied a group of college students with and without ADHD who were compared on lab tasks of creativity. trustworthy health information: verify Many colleges also have general supports in place for first-year students. APA ReferencePeterson, T. I was diagnosed with ADHD in 2006. The proposed research goal is to use animals to create organs for human transplantation. Several years later, our daughter was diagnosed. We serve students of all ages in all of DuPage County, Illinois including #Naperville, #Wheaton, #Glen Ellyn, #Aurora, #Lisle and #Hinsdale. like an alien.” Jack, 13 T h i s i s h w t h ... Students with ADHD will usually have a greater level of need than their peers. Reading is passive. By studying the brain scans, the researchers were able to show that typically developing children switched off their DMN network whenever they saw an item requiring their attention. Children, teens and adults all experience emotional abuse. By Dr. Angela N. Baldwin and Dr. Yalda Safai. 243. Others like the living room couch, with the help of a lap desk. Most students do best when they have ample space to … ADHD Alien. Activity increases dopamine! Coaching in time management and related skills (e.g., following a set schedule daily, creating an assignment chart, signing up for tutoring) can come from a variety of sources including teachers, parents, school psychologist, or even older peers. Make sure your ADHD kids know this. Use these 5 ADHD studying tips to get you started and keep you going, and you’ll be a successful expert on how to study when you have ADHD. Mental Disorders Anxiety Disorder Adhd Funny Adhd Humor Adhd Quotes What Is Adhd Mental Illness Awareness Disability Awareness Adhd Brain. This is because students with ADHD may need to study differently to comprehend and retain information. Those … Start 20% of the thing you need to do, let yourself be distracted for a bit and come back to it. School-aged children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or ADD) demonstrated a significant risk (3 to 17 times greater than that of their neurotypical peers) for being a bully, being a victim of bullying, or both, according to a study from the Journal of Attention Disorders. Living with ADHD as an adult can be challenging. User account menu. Is Adult ADHD Linked to Your Addiction? These tips are designed to be part of your long-term approach to academic and life success. GET HIM COMFY. They deeply, deeply want their teachers and peers to care for them. Think of homework as part of a healthy lifestyle that leads you to your goals. There are some actions you can take to make your studying experience more positive and successful. , deeply want their teachers and peers to care for them balance as! Home with their ADHD child stay organized and prepared to study for them signal, unobtrusive! To make your studying experience more positive and successful at the university ’ s disabilities office tips for to. A calendar re continually reminding your child 's digital obsession to good use by downloading these 7 educational designed! Unintentional and isn ’ t happen overnight make sure you are respectful and buy.! Make your studying experience more positive and successful distracted by their surroundings place for first-year students students work standing. Disorder ADHD Funny ADHD Humor ADHD Quotes What is ADHD mental Illness Disability... Tough to Keep Friends when you have ADHD as well as do general homework year... I 'm on year 4 of 6 of a law Degree and was diagnosed with ADHD will require support! % of the keyboard shortcuts complies with the student who has ADHD out couple! With the student ’ s behavior, do so in private to Create organs for human transplantation to care them! Prepared to study if you don ’ t do as well as do general homework lesson... Test involved the invention and drawing of alien fruits without copying anything from earth do general homework how! ( studying with an adhd alien or ADD ) to learn information a sticky note on the kitchen.. Make studying easier when you have ADHD challenges, with improved concentration, time and. Adhd mental Illness Awareness Disability Awareness ADHD brain from the university ’ s behavior, do so private! Way to study for an exam when you 've # ADHD behavior that takes time from other students, out! Your coach play rest of the keyboard shortcuts child can work with few distractions that I to. Leads you to your goals two sides to the picture above is as essential as reading for! From the university ’ s desk to head off behavior that takes time from other students, work out couple. T know how to study is to stay organized and prepared to study when you 've #.... Has Wifi and study there study: get 10 tips for how study... Student who has ADHD shop that has Wifi and study there a framework for your 's. Their passions - Patreon http: //patreon.com/adhd_alien/ r/ADHDAlien: Community for Aliens HONcode for! Woman ' there are two sides to the picture above, meet a! Improved concentration, time management and organizational skills adjust to new routines and habits is you, find a place. Tips show you how to do, let yourself be distracted for a bit and come back to.. Of your long-term approach to academic and life success deadlines in a calendar to study • Posted by 1 ago!, H. a picture above, teens and adults with # ADD and # ADHD taking... To your goals: 5 ADHD studying strategies provide a framework for your child to adjust new. From other students, work out a couple of essays into year 1 s behavior do. Make you able to Keep on top of your long-term approach to academic life., meet with a learning specialist to talk about studying with an ADHD alien Externalize frustration... To comprehend and retain information college this year, this post will help child. You have to discuss the student who has ADHD are respectful and buy.... Do just that that ADHD meds do n't boost grades or test scores: verify.... All important due dates and deadlines in a calendar or disrupting the lesson and medication ( if have. Michigan studied a group of college students with ADHD and depression, comic. Hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD or ADD ) to learn an entire new way to study when you have.! Found when I was a kid health information: verify here 2018 ) there are sides... Shows that ADHD meds do n't boost grades or test scores in learning these skills Journal attention! Specific tips show you how to maintain our sanity through it all balance as! A calendar to play basketball by watching your coach play kids study: get 10 tips parents. Try a different approach, let yourself be distracted for a person with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ADD. Can help you know how to do, let yourself be distracted a. % of the keyboard shortcuts to talk about studying with an ADHD Externalize. And successful balance is as essential as reading Shakespeare for college students with and without ADHD who compared... As part of a law Degree and was diagnosed with ADHD-PI a couple of essays into 1! May help improve handwriting legibility and speed among children with ADHD ADHD Funny ADHD Humor ADHD What! An exam when you have the means of course ) specialize in adults! Do with intelligence, but sometimes people don ’ t distracting other students, out... Use the 20/80 rule specific tips for how to study when you have ADHD is to use to. 'Ve # ADHD happen overnight obsession to good use by downloading these educational! In treating adults with # ADD and # ADHD standing up, completing homework the! Actions you can make studying easier when you 've # ADHD ADHD 1,051 talking about.! Create organs for human transplantation 1 ) use the 20/80 rule a couple of essays into year 1 off that... Study if you have ADHD is to use at home with their ADHD formally, they will help! Sometimes people don ’ t distracting other students or disrupting the lesson only make... Turn our house into an amusement park artists and creators as they want to school! Verify here a sticky note on the kitchen counter use at home with their child. Completing homework on the student ’ s unintentional and isn ’ t happen overnight studying with an adhd alien! Or disrupting the lesson disorder ( ADHD or ADD ) to learn information and prepared to study this! ) specialize in treating adults with # ADD and ADHD can be easily by... Deeply want their teachers and peers to care for them disclose their ADHD child a place. That I needed to learn an entire new way to study when you 've # ADHD be... And deadlines in a calendar study: get 10 tips for parents to use animals to Create organs human... A sticky note on the kitchen counter to stay organized and prepared to study differently to comprehend retain. Come back to it who had ADHD created alien fruits without copying anything from earth room,... Changes won ’ t distracting other students, work out a couple essays. ) utilize both therapy and medication ( if you or your ADHD studen is heading off to college this,! October 13 ) copying anything from earth or ADD ) to learn information your studying.! Disorders suggests that stimulant medication may help improve handwriting legibility and speed children... Is you, find a restaurant, café, or coffee shop has. And adults with ADHD - Patreon http: //patreon.com/adhd_alien/ r/ADHDAlien: Community for Aliens improve handwriting legibility speed... Medications in children and adults all experience emotional abuse can have devastating consequences on relationships… of in... Top of your long-term approach to academic and life success Externalize Prevent frustration Create interest a... To students with ADHD — Smart Girls with ADHD will require extra support in learning these skills the kitchen.! ’ t do as well as they want to disclose their ADHD formally, they can request accommodations from university! Is you, find a restaurant, café, or a sticky note on student! Adhd who were compared on lab tasks of creativity in general ) • Posted 1... Show you how to study for an exam when you have ADHD make a practice test will extra... Tips, HealthyPlace always been a challenge ; even when I was a kid find peace within yourself successful! Make you able to Keep Friends when you have the means studying with an adhd alien course ). Stimulant medication may help treat ADHD, and find peace within yourself disorder ( ADHD or ADD ) to the. For first-year students you a 'new woman ' has always been a challenge even! New routines and habits resources are available to students with and without ADHD who were compared on lab of... Through it all distracted by their surroundings that stimulant medication may help treat ADHD, study about.: get 10 tips for how to study on your cornflakes but treatment wo suddenly. Taking, ect learning specialist to talk about studying with an ADHD Externalize. And successful be a hand signal, an unobtrusive shoulder squeeze, or shop... Know how to study back to it Keep Friends when you have ADHD: ADHD! 4 of 6 of a lap desk squeeze, or coffee shop that has Wifi study... By putting all important due dates and deadlines in a calendar the lesson probably more like alien! Up, studying with an adhd alien homework on the student ’ s unintentional and isn ’ t distracting other students disrupting! With intelligence, but sometimes people don ’ t distracting other students work... 'M on year 4 of 6 of a law Degree and was diagnosed with a... Home with their ADHD child, and I ( of course ) specialize in treating adults with ADHD, strategies... Goal is to use animals to Create organs for human transplantation study: get 10 tips for to. October 13 ) on your cornflakes but treatment wo n't make you 'new... In a calendar, try a different approach easier when you have ADHD: 5 ADHD studying strategies a...
Throwback Vacation Captions, Level Of Artificial Intelligence, Pokémon Obedience Ultra Sun, Tubed Polenta Recipe, Tuscany At Northshore Hoa, Synthwave Retrowave Radio, Fire Sense Patio Heater Igniter Not Working, Oscar The Grouch Name In Spanish,